The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812–1824
1. A Scary War with Britain (pp. 233–240) a. What do the authors say at the outset is the “supreme lesson” of the War of 1812? The leading a divided and apathetic people into war is a bad idea b. For two years, the Americans and British fought to a standstill in Canada. What event in Europe in 1814 allowed the British to concentrate all their forces in America? Napoleons power was destroyed c. After American naval successes on Lake Erie under Admiral Oliver H.
Perry and then on Lake Champlain, a British force invaded the Chesapeake region and burned the new capital of Washington to the ground in August 1814. They then were beaten off in the battle at Fort McHenrynear Baltimore that inspired Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner. Finally, the victory of Gen. Andrew Jackson, over the British at New Orleans in January 1815 gave a boost to national morale, even though, because of slow communications, it was actually fought after the Treaty of Ghent had been signed, officially ending the war.
Why do the authors say on p. 238 that the Americans, who had wanted to conquer Canada at the outset, were relieved and even happy to settle for a virtual draw? Because despite that they hadn’t gained any land, they had managed to come to a draw with one of the most powerful superpowers of the time d. What were the New England demands, as expressed in the 1814 Hartford Convention? When taken together with the end of the war on unexpectedly favorable terms, how did they contribute to the final demise of the Federalist Party? 1) The New England demands: Financial assistance from Washington for lost trade and proposed amendments requiring a two thirds vote in Congress before an embargo could be imposed, new states admitted, and war declared. Abolish the three-fifths cause in the constitution to limit u. s. presidents to a single term, and to prohibit the election of two successive presidents from the same state. (2) End of Federalist Party: They wanted to secede from New England. 2. Nationalism and the “American System” (pp. 40–242) a. Increased security and self-confidence after the war produced a heightened sense of “nationalism” people associating themselves with the nation first and their respective states second. A national literature developed in the works of Washington Irving and James Fennimore Cooper and in the construction of a new capitol building in Washington A revived Second Bank of the United States was established in 1816 this time with the (support or opposition) of the Jeffersonian Republicans. Note: Modern students can be excused for finding a discussion about tariff policy a bit boring. This section covers the first of many tariff battles throughout the 1800s. Tariffs today are not a big deal because there is a worldwide trend to reduce duties on imports and because the government gets most of its revenue through income taxes. However, there was no income taxation until 1913 and the government therefore depended almost exclusively on tariff duties for its revenue. So it’s important to have a general understanding. ) b.
Look at the Tariff Chart on page A57 of the Appendix. At their peak in 1828, tariff duties on imported goods amounted to 60 percent of their value. In 1996, that tariff rate amounted to only about 5 percent. The authors say (p. 241) that the Tariff of 1816 was the first in history “instituted primarily for protection, not revenue. ” *** What is a “protective” tariff? What does it protect? Items manufactured in the US from foreign competition. c. List the three main elements of Henry Clay’s 1824 proposal for an “American System” of federal support for internal development.
Republicans considered this proposal unconstitutional. A strong banking system, that would provide a abundant credit. A protective tariff, for eastern manufacturing would flourish. More roads and canals, more in the Ohio Valley. 3. Monroe, Sectionalism, and the Missouri Compromise (pp. 242–246) a. The Panic of 1819 was caused largely by over speculation in western lands. (Note that financial panic, or economic depression, is a recurring theme that you will observe occurring every twenty to thirty years or so.
Many consider it the “curse of capitalism. ” Yet another recurring theme introduced here for the first time is the sectional controversy between North and South over the admission of new states as slave or free— a question which was primarily one of political and economic power, but which increasingly took on a moral character leading to the Civil War. ) With its booming population, the North was gaining power in the House of Representatives by 1820, while the South was only able to retain equal power in the South.
New states east of the Mississippi had been admitted alternately slave and free to keep a balance, but Missouri, the first new state to be carved out of the Louisiana Purchase, threatened to upset this balance. What were the three elements of the 1820 Missouri Compromise fashioned by Henry Clay? Missouri as a slave state. The Free-soil Maine All future bondage was prohibited in the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase north of the line of 36 degree 30 and the southern boundary of Missouri. 4. Nationalism and the Supreme Court (pp. 47–251) Because he was its first major interpreter, the authors call Chief Justice John Marshall the principal “Molding Father” of the Constitution. In the case of McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819), Marshall used Hamilton’s “Loose construction” of the Constitution to declare the Bank of the U. S. constitutional because Congress had the right to do anything “necessary and proper” to carry out its functions. Also, the federal government today influences many aspects of our lives (like meat inspection and product labeling, for example) through a drastic expansion of its constitutional power to control interstate commerce.
Marshall first strengthened this interpretation in the 1824 “steamboat” case of Gibbons v. Ogden. 5. Expansion and the Monroe Doctrine (pp. 251–255) a. The expansionist President Monroe (1817-1825) and his Secretary of State John Quincy Adams concluded a treaty with Britain in 1818 which allowed for the joint occupation of the Oregon Territory. With Spanish troops occupied by revolutionary wars to the south, General Andrew Jackson swept across Florida leading to its ultimate “purchase” by the U. S. in 1819 b.
Worried that other European powers would take the place of Spain in the Western Hemisphere, the now-famous “Monroe Doctrine” was issued in 1823 Its two principles were: (1) Noncolonization: The era of colonization in the Americas had ended and uniting season was closed. (2) Nonintervention: Monroe directed the crowned heads of Europe to keep their monarchical systems out of this hemisphere. *** What do you think of the Monroe Doctrine? It allowed for the US to prosper on its own. By what authority, if any, was it issued? National authority