The Romantic Movement in Europe
The Romantic Movement, also known as Romanticism, originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th Century: “Romanticism is characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical.” It went against the original ideas of the Age of Enlightenment. The idea behind Romanticism is that reason cannot explain everything. It concentrated on emotions, imagination, freedom and the heart instead of the mind. This is what caused negative emotions throughout art, literature and music.
The Romantic Movement began in Germany then made its way to Europe and then the rest of the world. Romanticism expressed feelings of struggle for justice, equality and freedom. It went against logical thought and more towards emotion, moods and psychological state of mind. As quoted by John Constable, “I should paint my own places best, painting is but another word for feeling.” This quote shows how artists express their emotions through their art, literature or music.
Europeans had various ways of expressing their work. Art was one of they ways that romantic painters expressed this emotion. They used the Medieval Life where people were extremely religious during these middle age times. Today this style would be considered “politically conservative”.
One of the famous painter’s was John Constable. He painted the Salisbury Cathedral, from the Meadows. This painting expressed the emotions of a stable world by a rural lifestyle without the industrial clutter of urban life.
Caspar David Friedrich was another artist who painted dark and mysterious landscapes. This painting, known as the The Polar Sea, produce controversy of religion which went against the emotions of sublime art forms.
In addition to paintings, there were many buildings restored such as cathedrals, churches and public buildings. One of the structures was the castle of new Schwann Stein built by King Ludwig II of bavaria. These neo-gothic structures caused negative emotions which almost bankrupt the Nation.
Another way to express the Romantic era was through Literature. This type of literature referenced unreal and over imaginative works of literature. This literature was either English or German writings.
English writings emphasize Poetry which was an expression of the mind. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge were English writers who published Lyrical Ballads. In this book, poetry was described as “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings.” This became the intention of the English Romantic movement in poetry. They both worked together and visioned childhood as creative imagination until they lost their poetic inspiration.
German writings appreciated novels and books. This style of writing was highly sentimental and influenced by the medieval era. Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe, a German famous writer wrote “The Sorrows of Young Werther.” This novel expressed emotions of living beyond a polite society.
The final way that the Romantic Movement was expressed was through Music. The musical techniques were either Classical or Romantic. It expressed the emotions of personal feeling and freedom of individuality and originality.
Ludwig Van Beethoven was a “purely romantic” as well as a classical German composer. His music was instrumental which expressed dramatic “musical forms, such as the lied, nocturne, intermezzo capriccio, prelude, and mazurka.” Beethoven created the Ninth symphony which was his only vocal symphony that represented freedom. His music set the emotions for other musicians to express their intense feelings during this era.
Vincenzo Bellini was an Italian Opera composer. His music was operatic as well as instrumental. He and Giuseppe Verdi developed the Romantic opera. This music made a huge emotional impact on The Romantic Movement because it inspired romanticism in poetry, legends and folktales.
As concluded, there are many ways to express feelings through romanticism. Romanticism tried to help individuals believe that they can fight for their rights and be natural again. Many examples of art, literature and music were expressed through The Romantic Movement which caused these rebellions.
If it was not for The Romantic Movement influencing art, literature and music our modern day world would be different.