Chapter 11 – From the chapter, we learned that the pattern of behavior arises from fundamental psychology and in particular, the following: a) our capacity for habitual behavior, b) the difference between intelligence as the manifestation of the coping mode of cognition and understanding as the manifestation of the pervasive optimization mode, and c) the phenomenon of authoritarianism as the need for external authority through a lack of understanding of one’s living environment.  Andringa (2015), stated that the combination of these phenomena leads to a formal definition – the Bureaucratic Dynamic – this is where the prevalence of coercive formalization scales with what the author refers to as “institutional ignorance” – a measure of how well workers understand the consequences of their own actions both within the organization as well as the wider society…
Q1: The author argues that most people may agree with the notion that “All human activities benefit from some form of formalization, and that formalization allows automating routine tasks, to agree on how to collaborate, determine when and how tasks should be executed, and when they are finished.” The author offers key reason(s) why procedures should not be changed too often.
Q2: Moore (2000) identifies that Public Value Management as an emerging new management paradigm that is not so much a response to an existing paradigm but a formulation of the role of nonprofits in modern society (Stoker 2006).  In view of both the authors, Moore (2000) and Stoker (2006), public value management is a succinctly formulated public value scorecard in which an organization should target to balance three components:  What are these components?  

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