Corporal Punishment in the Home and Spanking Varies
Spanking imposed on a child can have a harmful or helpful effect on a child’s upbringing ABSTRACT Spanking a child is one of the most controversial and talked about disciplinary method in today’s society. Rules and laws have changed to govern the way we discipline our children in our homes, schools and public places. Research has shown a mild correlation between pking and long term physical, mental, emotional and sexual abuse on a child, while other research displays no long term effect on a child except to say that there should be a noticeable distinction between abuse and pking.
Statistics have shown that many parents believe in pking child when deemed necessary, while others believe that pking can be seen as a form of child abuse and that there should be other positive alternatives other than pking. A more in depth perspicacity of the effect of pking depends upon social views of pking, cultural norms, sexual dangers, the racial color line, affects in early and later life, behavioral problem, the different styles of pking as well as the circumstances behind a pking.
This research paper will lelucidate these views and issues as well as the status of current research, the methodology limitations and the belief of teaching a positive alternative discipline technique to parents. Acknowledgements There are many people that I would like to acknowledge in my overall achievement of my degree. 1st I would like to GOD for giving me the strength to continue being a full time single parent, a full time working person and a full time student. I would like to acknowledge my father; he was the brains behind most of my projects as well as the push to succeed.
My children, who I endured most of the torment in my life for and last but not least, my future husband Quentin that have always given me the strength to take on the world. TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………Page ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………… …iii Chapter I: Introduction…………………………………………………… ………………6 Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………. …… 6 Assumption of the Study……………………………………………………………. ……. 6 Definition of Terms………………………………………………………………………. 7 Methodology……………………………………………………………………………… 7 Chapter II: Literature Review…………………………………………………………….. Chapter III: Methodology…………………………………………………………….. …21 Subject Selection and description………………………………………………………. 21 Instrumentation………… ……………. ………………………………………………….. 22 Data Collection Procedures……………………. ………………………………………. 22 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………………. 23 Limitations………………………………………………………………………….. …… 23 Chapter IV: Results…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25 Chapter V: Discussion……… ……………………………………………………………27 Limitations………………………………………………………………………………27 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………. ….. 8 Recommendations………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29 References……………………………………………………………………………….. 30 Appendix A: Pagination…………………………………………………………………. 33 Appendix B: How to Thrive in Graduate School……………………………………….. 34 Appendix C: How to survive the Research Paper Experience……………… ……………35 Chapter 1: Introduction Statement of the Problem While many of us were pked as a child, our definition of pking varies among each individual. What was done in one household could have been different in the next household but the message came across the same.
There have been many debates over pking, some feel that it is okay to pk a child, some who feel that a child should never be pked and finally there are those who feel that a child should only be pked for a particular reason. Some people feel that pking can have a long term effect and those who feel that pking will have no effect at all. Purpose of the Problem The purpose of this problem is public awareness. Many people do not know what pking does to a child’s physical, mental, emotional or sexual state.
I would also like to learn what the expert’s say about and if it will have a long term effect on my children. Assumption of the Study There are many assumptions about pking that are published and unpublished. It is assumed that pking will cause long term mental and sexual effects on a child. It is also assumed that pking cause no effect on a child at all. Some experts can challenge that there is a fine line between pking and beatings. It is my assumption that pking could and could not do short and long term on a child, depending on the type of pking as well as the time limit for each pking.
Definition of Terms Spanking – To discipline a child utilizing a belt, paddle for the purpose improvement. Time Out – To place a child in a certain spot (i. e a corner) for a specific amount of time as a disciplinary method. Limitation of the Study The limitation of this study is determines by those that pk, as well as the potential harm from this pking. Methodology Two studies were conducted for this paper. The first is a study I conducted through collages and family members to determine if their pking will pose harm to their children. This method was conducted using the Likert Scale.
The second study was conducted by Dr. Slade and Dr. Wissow to determine if race / ethnicity was a factor in pking children and behavioral problems. Chapter II: Literature Review Spanking has a long history since the beginning of time. It was noted that in Ancient Greece, it was customary for childless women to visit the temple of Juno in Athens, to be cured of sterility by the priests of an. The women had to lie face down on the temple floor, and be whipped with a lash made of goat’s hide (our world). The Roman’s also told a story where naked men danced in the streets beating every woman they came across.
The girl was placed across the knees of the ‘sponsor’, and then the girl’s bottom was bared and strapped to the accompaniment of clashing cymbals. This pking is alleged to last until the 16th century when the wife of the heir to the throne of France was childless. It was decided that a pking would be administered daily to the princess. After a long period, she gave birth (our world). Spanking in the spiritual realm were a factor. The church even defined different types of whipping; superior whippings on the back, while inferior referred to the naked buttock.
Priests used whipping as a means of expiating sins. It was common for women, after confession, to retire to a priest’s room and have her bare bottom birched while resting on a specially designed kneeler (our world). Proverbs of the bible quotes different versus pertaining to pking a child. Proverbs 13:24 says “he who spares the rod hates his son, but he who loves him is careful to discipline him” (NIV). Proverbs 23:13 says “withhold not correction from the child: for if thou beatest him with the rod, he shall not die” (NIV).
Proverbs 23:14 says “Thou shalt beat him with the rod, and shalt deliver his soul from hell” (NIV). These verses of the bible are what most people use as an excuse when they decide to discipline their children. Pope Adrian, the first was the one that finally put an end to pking in the church. Catherine de Medici was famous for her lust in see in women bare bottom whipped. She personally pked them on the buttock with the palm of her hand, with great blows and fairly rough handling (our world). Spanking was not only a Europe event. In the United Stated, it was widely accepted for parents to pk their children.
Dorothy Spencer published her Spencer Spanking Plan. In this plan she said that it was meant to result in marital bliss. It clearly defined when a man could pk his wife, and when a woman could whip her husband (our world). Eventually pking became associated with erotic fantasy. Parenting across the globe has changed from year to year. Spanking varies depending on the different parenting style: 1) The Martyr. This parenting style generally gives the child what they want. They often try to please the child to make the child fill fulfilled.
With this type of parenting style, children are less likely to receive a pking. 2) The pal parenting style is often displayed as the parent being a friend instead of an authoritative role in the child’s life. The children generally do what they want with little intervention from the parent. With this type of parenting style, there is little chance of a child receiving a pking. 3) The Police officer of drill sergeant style of parenting is usually punitive or authoritative. This parenting style generally punishes for small offenses thus making pking very likely. ) The teacher parenting style is pleased when the child asks for advice or opinions. With this parenting style there is a slight chance of pking. 5) The booster or the promoter is a parenting style where the parents are proud of their children accomplishments. This style of parent’s shows emotions when the children do not live up to their expectations. There is a chance for pking in this parenting style due to the high expectations of the parents. 6) The snoop is a parenting style by parents that are generally hard on their children. They have a lack of trust for their children.
They listening to phone conversations, follow them, search their bedrooms and hire private detectives. This parent will likely pk their children if the child gets caught in a lie. The types of pking administered to a child can determine what type of effects positive or negative a child will sustain early and later in life. I can remember a time when my mother use to pk my sister and I with what ever she had handy. Different types can vary from hands, belts, strap, switches, paddles whips or some household items such as a shoe, brush or slipper.
There are three different models associated with pking: 1) Domestic model is the type of pking that is usually administered by parent or guardian. 2) Judicial model is the type of pking that is administered authorities figure such as a prison guard. This type of pking is also common in boot camps and juvenile facilities. 3) Educational model is pking that is administered in schools. Although many parents do not grant permission for their child to be pked in school, there are 23 schools in the United States that still offer Corporal punishment.
Spanking a child is done 90% of the time in one of two positions. The child is either laid across the knee of the parent or the child is made to stand in one position and is administered the licks. Other ways to administer a pking to a child is called the diaper position. The child is laid on a flat surface and held legs up, by the ankles, and hit with an open hand upon the bare bottom (Wikpedia, 2007). Another position of pking would be the child bent over a piece of furniture and touching their toes (Wikipedia, 2007).
Spanking is also given over a diaper (usually merely to emphasize humiliation, but not to cause pin), over clothing, over undergarments, or upon the bare buttocks depending on the amount of pain or humiliation intended; the latter is greater increased by witnesses, such as the household, the class, or even a school assembly (Wikipedia, 2007). There is greater responsibility when disciplining a child. Many parents feel that it is necessary to pk a child for the child’s well being, other’s feel that because they were pked as a child, they will pk their children.
There are many things that need to be done to establish a relationship with your child; some include teaching a child to listen and building a bond between parent and child. If a pking is in order there are a number of things that have to be considered (1) the number of swats to give a child and (2) how hard the swats need to be. There are advocated that are for and against pking. The advocates for pking feel that pking is up to the parent stating that parents have the right to raise their children in the way they consider most appropriate.
They also hold there is little evidence that moderate pking is harmful. Many believe that discipline problems among children have recently increased, and partially attribute the increase to the decline of both parental authority and the use of pking (Wikipedia, 2007). Other people feel that pking causes no long term harm or damage. It has been argued that when parents and children are engaged in a prolonged struggle for authority, the anger, bitterness that result can cause emotional estrangement that far outweighs any possible negative effects from moderate pking, while a sound pking would “clear the air.
Some advocates for pking comes from a behaviorist point of view, and argue that as pking is a form of operant conditioning, the child associates certain behavior with the physical pain and/or humiliation caused by pking. Since a child’s learning process may be less complex than that of an adult, they claim that children are more likely to be influence by such a conditioning (Wikipedia, 2007). Advocates against pking such as the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, 1998) recommend that parents be encourage and assisted in the development of methods other than pking for managing undesired behavior (AAP, 1998).
They goes further to say that the more children are pked, the more anger they report as adults, the more likely they are to pk their own children, the more likely they are to approve of hitting a spouse, and the more marital conflict they experience as adults (AAP, 1998). The Natural Child Project list several reasons not to pk a child (1) Hitting your child teaches then to become hitters. (2) The child is simply responding in the only way he can. (3) Punishments distract the child from learning how to resolve conflicts. (4) Spare the Rod and Spoil the child 5) Punishment interferes with bond between parent and child. (6) Punishment can escalate to more frequent and dangerous actions against the child. (7) Anger and frustration becomes stored (8) Physical punishment gives unfair message. (9) Physical punishment gives message that hitting is an appropriate way to express feelings (Hunt, 1997) Some negative effects of pking is some children will have anxiety disorders, drug and alcohol problems, antisocial behavior and depression were more prevalent among adults who had been pked as children.
Other problems are that it is easy for a parent to lose patience; light swats can escalate after repeated failures at curtailing inappropriate behavior (Blaker). Some positive effects include stirring the children in the right directions, making a child know right from wrong, kids will understand once they get older that they parents really care about their well being and the direction of their lives as a result of the pking, and most of all pking is a form of direct discipline. When to pk and the circumstances surroundings pking is important knowledge.
It is okay to pk a child when the child lies, steals, is disrespectful or disobedient or simply when the parent gets upset because they cannot take it anymore. A recent MSNBC article outlined some of the reader’s comments on their opinion about pking. Rhonda feels that it all depends on your child. You have to match the discipline to the child. Spanking should be used as a last resort when nothing else works (MSNBC, 2007). Although Rhonda feels that pking should be used as a last resort, Sherry from Charlotte, North Carolina says that pking is a personal decision to be made by the parent (MSNBC, 2007).
While Chris from Omaha, Nebraska feels that not hitting, not slapping but pking works. Spanking is a controlled form of discipline, not an emotional outburst, or reaction to being angry – this is called hitting. There is a huge difference between pking and hitting and those who use pking as an effective disciplinary measure will have no problem defending the practice (MSNBC, 2007). I agree with Chris, pking should not be done out of anger but as a mean of punishment to teach the child a lesson, or prevent the child from repeating the current situation.
Bryan from Lake Worth Florida believes that it is a parental question that should be left up to the parent. They are the responsible ones, after all (MSNBC, 2007). Bryan has a good point; parents should be the ones that dictate when and how a child gets a pked. Parents have been given the smaller end of the stick when it comes to their children. Finally Greg from Alabama feels that Spanking is the only effective method of child discipline. There is a difference between hitting and pking, yet most experts think they are the same. Spanking is biblical and ordered by GOD.
If God says it is OK we should listening (MSNBC, 2007). While Greg believes that pking may be the only effective discipline, it also depends on the child and how pking effects them. Cultural norms can play a big role when it comes to pking. In the United States many people view pking as a form of discipline, while some view it as an abusive model that may very well turn that child into an aggressive individual. Researchers from Duke University and other University around the world, conducted research to determine if culture plays a role in how parents pk their children.
Of their results they came to the conclusion that mothers in Thailand were least likely to physically discipline their children, followed by mothers in China, the Philippines, Italy, India, and Kenya, with mothers in Kenya most likely to physically discipline their children (Science Daily, 2005). They also found that more frequent use of physical discipline was less strongly associated with child aggression and anxiety when it was perceived as being more culturally accepted, but physical discipline was also associated with more aggression and discipline regardless of the perception of cultural acceptance (Science Daily, 2005).
Jessica Lansford, Ph. D. , a research scientist at the Center for Child and Family Policy at Duke University also says a particular parenting practice may become a problem only if parents use it in a cultural context that does not support the practice (for example, if they migrate from one country to another)(Science Daily, 2005). Other negative effects of pking are that it can create an association between pain and sexual pleasure. The buttock can be a child’s sexual sense of the human anatomy. Spanking also trespasses on one of the body’s most private and sexual areas – the buttock (Johnson, 2002).
The sexual nature of the buttock is explained not only by their proximity to the genitals, but also by their high concentration of nerve endings which leads directly to sexual nerve centers. Hence, the buttocks are a major focus of sexual signals (Johnson, 2002). They also go to say pking can interfere with a child’s normal sexual and psychological development. Slapping them can trigger powerful and involuntary sensations of sexual pleasures and a child who buttock are pked may experience deep and lasting sexual shame (Johnson, 2002).
There are a large majority of experts that believe that children should not be pked especially girls. According to Jordan Riak, a retired school teacher and the executive director of Parents and teachers against Violence in Education, when a girl is pked by her father or paddled by a male school teacher, she is being trained to submit. Risk also go to say when a school district permits teachers to paddle girls it is setting those girls up to be victims of future male authority figures, whether it be a boyfriend, husband or employer.
Many of the experts associate pking with sexual desires. Race and gender have a very big influence on pking children. Does it make a difference who the child receives a pking from? It is noted in the making of the slave that a woman pking a boy teaches the boy to become submissive. “She would have a limited protective tendency toward her independent male offspring and would raise male offspring to be dependant like her. Nature had provided for this type of balance. We reverse nature by bullwhipping to the point of death.
By her being left alone, unprotected, with the male image destroyed, the ordeal caused her to move from her psychologically dependant state to a frozen, independent state” (Lynch, 2005). In this independent state, “she will raise her male and female offspring in reversed roles. She will train him to be mentally weak and dependant, but physically strong” (Lynch, 2005). Because of this black children and male children are much more likely to be hit at home and school and pking of boys tend to be more severe, more frequent and more aggressive than girls.
Ironically, the research shows that while corporal punishment is counterproductive for all children, it is even more counterproductive for boys than girls (Wikipedia, 2007). Spanking is more common among low income parents, in the South, for boys, and by mothers, especially white mothers (those under age 33). Overall, older parents are less likely to use corporal punishment than younger parents (Day et al. , 1998; Straus and Stewart; Walsh, 2002). Parents that choose to pk their children have to know how young a child should be when they first start receiving pkings.
A survey was conducted and it indicated that 94 percent of Americans pk their children by the time they are 3 or 4. About 36 percent of parents discipline their infants by slapping their hands or leg, pking their buttock, pinching, shaking, hitting on the buttock with a belt or paddle, or slapping the infants face. More than half of the parents hit their children hit at age 12, a third at age 14, and 13 percent at age 17. Hitting a child with a belt or paddle is most common for children aged 5 to 12. (Straus and Stewart, 1998). There are many factitious beliefs when it comes to pking.
Some of the fact and fictions are: (1) Spanking is an effects way to manage behavior. Spanking is not a way to stop a child from misbehaving. It will only make a child misbehave more and can develop many problem because of the pking. (2) I got hit when I was a kid and I turned out okay Because some people who were pked turned out to live good and health lives, not all are so lucky. (3) If we don’t pk our children, they will grow up to be rotten. A child being rotten does not come from a lack of pking. There are many children who grow up rotten while being pked. 4) The bible says Spare the Rod and Spoil the child and I must obey God. The bible also says that children should honor thy mother and thy father, which could the reason that they are so many delinquent children and serial killers. The bible is used as a support tool for the dos and the don’ts when it comes to disciplining children. A similar method could just as well been used to justify slavery, suppression of women, polygamy, incest and infanticide. Basically to use the bible to pk is just an excuse (Block, 2007). Spanking imposed on a child early in life can have tremendous effect on a child’s psychological state.
The National longitudinal Survey of young Mother-Child Sample conducted a study on 1,966 children younger than two. The results of this study confirmed that behavioral problems do not affect children until after the age of 4 in certain races. White non Hipic families have the higher number of behavior problem associated with affects of mental, physical and behavioral problems as a result of pking. Experts feel that pking is no more effective than any other discipline. They feel that pking is a short-term solution. Murray A.
Straus, a professor of Sociology at the University of New Hampshire and co-director of that’s school Family Research Laboratory says it is no more effective than many other forms of discipline such as time outs, that work just as well in the short run and have no negative long term effects (Straus). Diana Baumrind, a research psychologist at the University of California feels that pking is no more or less harmful than a mild scolding, timeout or other developmentally appropriate level and kind of punishment (MSNBC). The American Academy of Pediatrics is against pking children.
They feel that pking children has potential side effects. Paul Frick, a researcher at Fisk University in New Orleans says that pking and hitting can lead to later emotional and behavioral problems. Even children who are only smacked occasionally are more likely to show signs of depression or lower self – esteem (MSNBC). My personal view of pking is that it should be administered only when warranted. Children should not be pked when a parent had reached a boiling limit. I believe that if children are not pked they have a higher chance of developing disrespectful tendencies.
Spanking not only curbs a child’s attitude but it makes them more respectful to adults and authority. Society places labeled on children that misbehave and often blames the parents, but at the same time parents that pk their children are often ridiculed by their peers and society. I believe that other alternative methods should be tried before a pking is given but if the other means do not work, then pk the child. Because pking is one of the renowned topics discussed annually, Interviews as well as surveys are also conducted annually.
ABCNEWS conducted a poll on if most Americans approved pking; they found that by a public result by a 2-1 margin, many people approve pking. In their study they found that 65 percent of Americans approved pking, they also found that 50 percent of parents pked their children while 45 percent do not (ABCNEWS). ABC says that there is a regional difference among southerners and the rest of the country. 73 percent of southerners approved of pking children compared to the 60 percent elsewhere. This ABCNEWS poll was conducted by telephone Oct 25-29 in a random sample of about 1015 adults.
The use of interviews makes a big difference in gaining public opinion and expert opinion. I conducted a survey of about 16 people on Feb 16 to get public (co workers, friends and family) opinion on if they believe that pking harms or helps a child. These subjects were selected by race, age, marriage status, children or no children. 100 percent of the subjects believed that children should be pked when appropriate or to teach a lesson, they also feel that it is appropriate to use belts and a verbal warning should be given before rendering a pking. 0 percent of the respondents believed that child delinquents were pked as a child while the other 50 percent believe that they were not. 100 percent of these subjects were pked as a child and believes that if a child is pked they will not grow up aggressive, hit others, feel humiliated or become angry. There were no considerable differences in those who feel pking will have a harmful long term effect. Those opposed to pking children believes that there are other methods for discipline children. Preventing or discouraging bad behavior is also more effective than punishing the child.
Preventing measures include avoiding situations that may cause trouble, distracting the child with positive activities, ignoring minor transgressions that have few consequences and rewarding good behavior. Placing children in “time out” is the most effective way to manage disruptive behavior once it has occurred. Parents should consistent and fair in their interactions with children and should invest “time in” i. e. , special time each day devoted to the relationship. (Walling). The future of pking is determined by those that utilize it. Many people believe that pking will some day be banned.
Many lawmakers have introduced bill that may potential change the way we pk our children. California Democratic assembly woman Sally Lieber introduced a bill that would outlaw this behavior with children under 4. If the bill becomes law, that parent in the parking lot could be charged with a misdemeanor punishable by a year in jail or a fine of up to $1,000 (MSNBC). Until we as Americans are forced to give up the practice of pking, pking will remain one of the most controversial and researched topic. Chapter III: Methodology While many of us were pked as a child, we continue to pk our children for the reasons we see fit.
Spanking children could pose some behavioral problems for some while no problems at all for others. There have been many debates over pking; this chapter will address the studies conducted to verify if pking poses any threat to children. It is determined that at least 94% of children have been pked in the last year. A National Survey administered by the Commonwealth Fund found that 11% of parents reported pking their child 6 to 11 months of age, 36% reported pking a child 12 to 17 months and 59% reported pking a child 18 to 23 months of age (Slade and Wissow, 2003).
Dr’s Slade and Wissow conducted research by race to determine if pking associates itself with behavioral problems in children under 4. Subject Selection and Description Using information from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Mother-Child (NLSY-MC), participants were selected using multistage stratified samples of dwellings, and group quarters. In the beginning, there were about 75,000 dwellings, over sampling African and Hipic Americans and disadvantaged white. This selection focused on children under 21 in the home environment and child development.
Starting in 1986 and continuing every two years thereafter, the NLSY-MC had 4845 children, 2879 were excluded for because of follow up interviews or had not yet attended preschool or elementary school. Other exclusion included missing values of child behavior and the use of pking (Slade and Wissow, 2003). Of the exclusions of the study, 28. 2% vs. 23. 0; P 119, which stated that 10% children in this range have more frequent and more severe behavior problems than the other 90% of children in the United States (Slade and Wissow, 2003). Data Collection Procedures
The data collected for the procedure were used using a likelihood ratio statistics to test the null hypothesis that probit model coefficient estimates were the same for the three ethnics / sub samples. Rejections of this hypothesis were used to determine if separate analyses by race/ethnic worked better for the data. The number of pkings was entered into the probit models as a quadratic term by pking frequency and square of pking frequency. Past research showed that the relationship between pking and behavioral problems is nonlinear, with larger marginal effects observed at greater pking frequencies. Slade and Wissow, 2003) Data Analysis During this study, models were used for each variable using full sample and 3 sub samples (white, African Americans and Hipic Americans). The purpose of separating the samples was for the association of race and physical discipline of child behavior problems. The change in children who exhibited the outcome of change represented the estimated effect of a 1-unit increase in value of children who had BPI of >119 or those that displayed behavioral problems in school.
For the dichotomous variable, the marginal effect change in value from 0 to 1 of children with those outcomes (Slade and Wissow, 2003). Some measures could have been correlated; the samples included 1 child per mother. Out of the 1540 samples used, 75% of mothers had one child, 21% of mothers had two children, 2% had three children and . 4% of mothers had four children used in this study. Limitations Dr. Slade and Dr. Wissow encountered several limitations white conducting this study.
First, the father of the children and other adults were not conducted, so there is not way of determining if the pkings were administered by the mother, father, or both. Second, they found that the limitation of this data to be influenced because of the magnitude associated between pking and behavioral problems. Third, there is no available information available on other forms of punishments used on these children. They believe that other forms of punishments may also lead to other behavioral problems. Other rating behavioral problems by mothers but were not confirmed by an independent observation.
Fourth, fewer than half of the obtained samples were in the Hipic Americans and African Americans sub samples that limited associations of pking and behavior problems which apply only to 8% to 13% of the overall sample. Fifth, many children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Mother-Child Sample (NLSY-MC) were excluded from this study because of missing information representing 59% of eligible children. Many of the participants did not attend follow up interviews which makes the samples more bias toward African American and Hipic Americans. These biases might have reduced the magnitude of the association of pking frequency and behavioral problems are likely to have been relatively more common among low-income whites whose children were excluded from this sample” (Slade and Wissow, 2003). Chapter IV: Results The results of the study show differences (p < . 05) among the three sub samples. They indicate that the white non Hipic respondents were from a higher socioeconomic background than those of the black and Hipic backgrounds. Income factors were higher for White families ($46,400), followed by Hipic families ($35,200) and Africa American families ($26,300).
Comparing all three groups white mothers were more likely to be married (87. 8 % vs. 45. 5% and 75. 0%). They were more likely to have completed at least 12 years of schooling (46. 7% vs. 38. 2% and 31. 7%), were older, and were more likely to read to their children (68. 2% vs. 39. 1% and 40. 1%). African American mothers compared to white mothers, white mothers were pked their children less often than black mothers, they were more likely to display positive interaction with their children, they were less likely to have parent-teacher meeting about child behavior, and they were less likely to have BPI scores of >119.
African American mothers compared to Hipic mothers, Hipic mothers were more likely to be married (75. 0% vs. 45. 5%), and they were less likely to pk their children (2. 7 times vs. 4. 0 times) (Slade and Wissow, 2003). Associations of pking and behavior problems were positive and significant with children that required parent-teachers conferences (x2 = 9. 807, P = . 007) and with the children that have BPI scores of >119 (x2 = 8. 901, P = . 012). This association differs among the three races. The white families showed that there is an significant and positive correlation with behavior problems and pking (x2 = 17. 68, P < . 001), African American families being slightly positive and found not to be statistically significant (x2 – . 666, P = . 717), Hipic families was negative and found not to be statistically significant (x2 = . 010, P = . 995). These results show that African American children and Hipic children were more likely to have behavioral problems when they were not pked. White children who were pked more frequently also displayed higher behavioral problems than those of Hipic and African American children (Slade and Wissow, 2003). Chapter V: Discussion / Findings
Several important factors emerged from this paper as well as the different studies conducted for research on this topic. Overall, most parents not only reported using pking as a means of controlling their child’s behavior but believes that pking could pose no long term harm to their child as a result of pking. In my study that I explored the association of pking children to long term mental, physical, and sexual behaviors. I found that most of the respondents agree that they have pked their children when warranted, they also believes that pking their children was a way to control future behavioral problems.
In the study conducted by Dr. Slade and Dr. Wissow, they explored the associations of pking frequency before age 2 with children risk of developing behavioral problems. Among the children in their study, there were substantial predictors for the children developing behavioral problems especially at schools. They addressed several possibilities that may be associated with the differences among the racial groups. They believe that pking is greatly accepted among the African American group which means that they view pking as less harsh and fair.
In White families, where pking is not used too often, children before the age of 2 could lead to other developmental problem for the child and problems for the parents. African Americans children were found in all studies to pose a higher risk for behavioral problems. Limitations As stated before there were several limitations encountered while conducting research on this paper. The only limitations that I encountered with my study were how often a child should be pked, what a child should be pked with and the difference between a pking and a beating.
The way I was pked as a child, I would never pk my children that way. My mother basically used anything close to her hands to hit or throw. I got pked with extension cords, broom sticks, hands, pans, clothes, tree branches and shoes. These limitations did not have an impact on this paper and the research that was conducted. It gave me a better insight as to other people opinion and what others thought about effective disciplinary actions that should be imposed on a child. The limitations of the study conducted by Dr. Slade and Dr.
Wissow was the (1) not knowing the adults that pked the child, (2) a magnitude of behavioral problems an pkings, (3) no available information on the forms of punishments used, (4) the overall samples used for research were limited and (5) 59% of the participants were excluded from the study. Conclusions The findings of this research are simple. Effective discipline works for different individual. If a child is pked they will grow up no less rotten or worse than a child who was not. A child can be pked for different reasons using different methods. Spanking of long term effects draws a line of pking and beatings.
For us that were pked as a child, we felt that we grew up without any problems. Some people feel that pking does physical, emotional, mental and sexual harm to the child that is being pked. The way a child grows up and the life they lead is not determined by the numbers of pking that child receives. There is no knowledge or proven fact that pking harms or helps a child, there is only personal and expert opinion. Recommendations As I conducted research on this topic, I thought of several recommendations that could be done to curb not only public opinion but the right for parents to pk their children the way they see fit.
The public opinion could be one of the harshest opinions that a parent has to encounter. There is a fine line between beating and pkings; it is the public responsibility for self awareness. It is up to the public to research and acquire information about pkings before passing judgment. Parents need to know the potential associated risks for pking children, as well as the upsides and downsides of pking children. Parents need to also try other alternative methods before imposing a pking on a child. References A Short History of Spanking. (2007). Retrieved June 15, 2007, from http:ourworld. compuserve. om/homepages/moonglowDC/Letters/History. htm American Academy of Pediatrics. (1998). Guidance for Effective Discipline. Pediatrics, vol. 101. n4:pp723-728. Bradley , RH, Corwyn RF, McAdoo, HP and Coll CG (2001). The home environment of children in the United States part 1: variation by age, ethnicity, and poverty status. Child Dev,72:1844-1867 Baumrind, D. (1996). A blanket injunction against disciplinary use of pking is not warranted by the data. (The Short – and long -Term Consequences of Corporal Punishment: Proceeding of a conference, February 9 and 10, 1996 in Elk Grove Village, Illinois). electronic version] Pediatrics, v98. n4:pp828(4). Benokraitis, N. “Raising Children: Prospect and Pitfalls. ” Marriages and Families. Changes, Choices and Constraints. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. 2005. 5th ed. Blaker, K. Spare the Rod, Spoil the child? The Negative Effects of Spanking—and Some Healthy Alternatives. Mothering. Retrieved June 12, 2007, from http:/www. mothering. com/articles/growing_child/discipline/spare_the_rod. html Block, N. (2000). Abandon the Rod and Save the Child [electronic version]. The Humanist, 60. 2: p5. Block, N. (2007). Discipline at Home (EPOCH – USA).
Spanking Fact and Fiction. Retrieved June 13, 2007 from http://www. stophitting. com/disathome/factAndFiction. php Campbell, S. (2002). Spare the rod to spare the child? Corporal Punishment remains popular in America, despite associated risks. (Parenting). (Brief Article) [electronic version]. Psychology Today, 35. 5:p26(1) Clayton, V. (2007). Discipline debate: Spanking gets a timeout. Proposed Calif. Law reignites battle over best way to deal with unruly tots. Retrieved June 12, 2007, from http://www. msnbc. msn. com/id/16929303/print/1/displaymode/1098 Colvard, K. (1996). Spanking and triage. The Short – and long -Term Consequences of Corporal Punishment: Proceeding of a conference, February 9 and 10, 1996 in Elk Grove Village, Illinois). [electronic version] Pediatrics, v98. n4:pp807(2). Corporal Punishment takes research hit. (Behavior). (Brief Article). (2002). Science News. 162. 5:p77(1). Huffman, B. (1995). Use of pking as discipline by mothers of young children. (includes editor’s note) (adapted from Pediatrics) (Tips from other Journals). [electronic version]. American Family Physician. V51. n6:pp1586(2). Hunt, J. (1997). Ten Reasons Not to Hit Your Kids. Retrieved June 13, 2007 from http://www. aturalchild. org/jan_hunt/tenreasons. html Johnson, T. (2002). The Sexual Dangers of Spanking Children. Retrieved June 13, 2007, from http://www. nopk. net/sexdngrs. htm Kirchner, J. (1998). Childhood pking and increased antisocial behavior. (Tips from other Journals). American Family Physician. V57. n4:pp798(1). Lemonick, M. (1997). Spare the Rod? Maybe. (how pking affects children later in life). [electronic version]. Time. V15. n8:pp65(1). Lynch, W. (2005). Willie Lynch letter: Making of a Slave. Retrieved June12,2007 from http://www. finalcall. com/artman/publish/printer_2167. shtml Rice, M. (2001).
Experts” Spanking Harms Children, Especially Girls. Women’s E News. Retrieved June 12, 2007 from http://www. womensenews. org/article. cfm/dyn/aid/662/context/archieve Slade, EP. , and Wissow, LS. (2004). Spanking in early Childhood and Later Behavior Problem: A Prospective Study of Infants and Young Toddlers. Pediatrics. Vol. 113. n5 Spanking Leads To Child Aggression And Anxiety, Regardless Of Cultural Norm (2005). Science Daily. Retrieved June 12,2007, from http://www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2005/11/051114110820. htm Spare the Rod. New International Version Bible Retrieved June 13, 2007 from http://www. bible. com
Spurgeon, D. (1999). Study leads to a call for an end to pking. The Western Journal of Medicine. P381 Straus, M. (1996). Spanking and the making of a violent society. (The Short – and long -Term Consequences of Corporal Punishment: Proceeding of a conference, February 9 and 10, 1996 in Elk Grove Village, Illinois). [electronic version] Pediatrics, v98. n4:pp837(6). Straus, M. (1998). The Behavorial Mearsurement Letter. Behavioral Mearsurement Database Service, v5. n2:pp3. To Spank or Not? Readers talk back. Many parents stand up to experts and support a smack on the bottom. (2007). Retrieved from http://www. msnbc. msn. om/id/17010115/print/1/displaymode/1098/ Walling, A. D. (2000). Discipling Children Without Spanking. American Family Physician. 62. 10: p2344. Wellbery C. (2005). Effects of pking in early childhood. (Tips). [electronic version]. American Family Physician. 71. 6:p1188. Appendix A: Pagination Appendix B: How to Thrive in Graduate School There are several things that could be done to thrive in graduate school. The first is dedication. If you are not dedicated to school, there is no chance that success will happen. The second are goals. In order to accomplish the task of completing graduate school, goals must be set and completed.
Graduate school takes determination. If success is not determined by those that strive to succeed, there is no chance of completing graduate school. Time is another important factor in completing graduate school. A person must know how to manage their time for school and personal issues. In order to survive graduate school, a person must want it. Appendix C: How to survive the Research Paper Experience Since I have survived several research paper experiences, this being the hardest, I believe that in order to survive this experience take a lot of time and discipline.
I found it to be difficult with finding the best material for the paper. Some of the materials were 30 or more pages, which must be read through to get accurate information. Researched papers are detailed and defined with information that could possible have future use. There must be a dedication to ensure that the paper is completed and turned in on time and a second pair of eyes on the paper to ensure no mistakes are made. Surviving a research paper is somewhat frustrating especially if time does not permit but once the paper is completed there is a sense of fulfillment. ———————– 2 4 13