Can you fix this research proposal?

   
Stress and Healthcare Workers Productivity at Lexington Medical Center
Veronica N Cornell
Claflin University
ABSTRACT[BY1] 
The research proposal aim at assessing the effect of workplace stress on workers productivity at Lexington Medical Center. The objective of the research is to assess worker productivity, the stress level among health workers, and the extent to which their productivity and performance is related to stress levels. The research survey will be a cross section and it will involve 120 participants (about 20% of the total population) and it will be conducted through convenience sampling techniques and stratified sampling. The data will be collected using questionnaire and descriptive statistical regression analysis will be used for data analysis. Before the actual data collection, there will be pilot study to determine reliability of the [BY2] research process. At this stage, the research will include expert opinion to enhance validity of the research.
This abstract did not give a background and summary of your study, and your expected outcome
Keywords: Employee productivity/ job performance, work place stress/occupational stress, doctors, nurses, medical attendant Lexington Medical Center. 
Table of Contents [BY3] 
Why do you have a background and Statement of the Problem? The background can be covered in the statement and description of the problem.
CHAPTER ONE……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION.. 1
1.1 Background to the Research Problem.. 1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem.. 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study. 3
1.3.1General Objective. 3
1.3.2 Specific Objectives. 4
1.4. Research Questions. 4
Why do you have a General and a Specific Objectives and Research Question. Please read the textbook or my powertpoint and understand it. Also my dissertation..
1.4.1 General Research Question. 4
1.4.2 Specific Research Questions. 4
1.5 Relevance of the Research. 4
1.6 Organization of the Dissertation (Why disseration? Disseration is totally different from a Research Proposal 5
1.7. Limitations. 5
CHAPTER TWO.. 6
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW… 6
2.1 Overview.. 6
2.2 Conceptual Definitions. 6
2.2.1 Work Place Stress. 7
2.2.2 Employee Performance. 7
2.3. Theoretical Literature Review.. 8
2.3.1 Employees Performance Management 8
2.3.2 Stress at Workplace. 8
Work Stress and Employees Performance. 10
Theories of Work Stress. 10
The Job Demands-Control Theory (JD-C) 10
The Role Theory. 11
Empirical Literature Review.. 11
Assessing Employee Performance. 12
2.5.3 Relationship between work Stresses and Employee Performance. 13
Research Gap Identified. 13
2.9 Statement of Hypotheses. 14
CHAPTER THREE.. 15
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.. 15
3.1 Overview.. 15
3.2 Research Design. 15
3.3 Study Population. 15
3.4 Area of the Research. 15
3.5.1 Sample Size. 16
3.5.2 Sampling Procedure. 17
3.6. Variables and Measurements. 18
3.7 Methods and Instrument Used for Data Collection. 19
3.8. Data Processing and Analysis. 19
CHAPTER FOUR.. 21
4.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 21
4.1 Summary. 21
References. 22
   
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION (Omit the numbers. LOOK AT MY DISSERATION)
1.1 Background You do not need to put background and this section is too long. Most of what you stated here should be part of the Review of Literature.
Stress is an emerging and growing problem in any health care setting. Some organizations administration feel that stress has no effect and it is simply and an exaggerated point while other believe the work related stress is threatening to the wellbeing of the health center and the general employees performance. Around 3 billion people employed globally face the problem of work related stress[BY4] . Scholarly work shows that the health sector is the most stressing work setting. According to study by [BY5] (Ali & Jabir, 2014)[BY6] , health sector is a stressful work environment and the stress come because of long working hours, the incompatible demands, the ethical dilemmas, and frequent handling of difficult and demanding patients. 
Some of the stressors associated with the health workers and the working environment include work overload, excessive administrative work, shortage of staffs, uncertainty in treatment, and lack of support from community, peers, and superiors. In some health care setting, health workers operate on a 24 hour schedule. Many workers operate for long hours; have irregular working period, and over 30% of the health workers work for more than 60 hours per week (Arbabisarjou & Azizollah, 2013). [BY7] Health workers have different types of stress, they operate in environment characterized by conflict between patients and their families and the workplace is normally full of noise, liable infections, and pollution. According to a study conducted in Canada (AL-Swalhah, Irtima, Zouby, & Shaar, 2014), involving over 2000 doctors, it was reported that medics who work under stressful condition have difficult time dealing with patients and the quality of care is equally poor. Actually, there is concern in the US about the mental health of health practitioners such as mental problem. The healthcare staffs are vulnerable to emotional and physical morbidity which raise the concern.
According to (AL.Homayan, Shamsudin, Subramaniam, & Rabiul, 2017), stress is not harmful in all encounters. On one hand, stress is a motivating factor and on the other is can be source of depression. The result of health stress is compromised efficiency and the qualities of workers are equally vulnerable to work errors. Other effects of stress include compromised team work, increased patient complaints and absenteeism because of burnout. The psychological effects of the work related stress lead to bad habits such as smoking, over consumption of alcohol, and over eating. In addition, these can lead to clinical errors and carelessness in handling the patient wellbeing.
Studies (AL-Swalhah, Irtima, Zouby, & Shaar, 2014; Arbabisarjou & Azizollah, 2013) shows the link between work stress and clinical errors. In the US, it was reported that these avoidable errors caused between “44,000 and 98,000 death to patients.” A study by (Awardee, 2014), also shows that work related stress cost between 200 and 300$ billion annually and this is because of absenteeism, staff turnover, dropped productivity, direct health, and injuries. Reports show that stress among nurses, physician and health care worker is high. The stress is worse in the third world. Such important realization about stress in workplace shows that much stress has negative effects on the organization and workers.
In the US, the health workers carry the responsibility of providing health care to wide community. The demand for health care has increase. Health workers working in this organization are dissatisfied with the work because of the low income, lack of promotion, unsafe working environment, heavy workload, and burden of caring with lack of resources. The health workers on duty are at risk of infection and build-up chronic stress. Thus, there are concerns that the combination of heavy workload, low salary, long working hours and exposure to infection contribute to health workers stress and underperformance (Dewe & Cooper, 2012). Therefore, this research proposal seeks to make some contribution to growing body of knowledge about workers performance and stress.
1.2 Statement of the Research[BY8]  Problem
Work related stress threatens the operation of organization and workers performance. The stress in workers is serious problem because of the cost implication and negative effects towards organizations and employees performance. Studies shows that work stress exist when health workers experience challenges in coping with work demand. There is, however, a paucity of study to prove whether work stress affect the performance of health worker in Lexington Medical Center. It is in this light that this research proposal aims at assessing the effects of stress on worker performance and evaluation of the relationship between work stress and performance at the Lexington Medical Center. 
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.3.1General Objective
The core objective of this research proposal is to study or investigate the impact of workplace stress towards workers performance at the Lexington Medical Center. 
1.3.2 Specific Objectives

To assess the employees performance      at the Lexington Medical Center.
To evaluate the stress levels among health workers at the Lexington      Medical Center.
To assess the extent to which employees’ performance at the Lexington      Medical Center is related to their stress levels.[BY9] 

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1.4. Research Questions[BY10] 
1.4.1 General Research Question
Are health workers performance at the Lexington Medical Center affected by their work stress levels?
1.4.2 Specific Research Questions

How do medics at the facility perform?[BY11] 
How stressed are the health workers [BY12] [BY13] at the      Lexington Medical Center?
To what degree is performance o[BY14] f health      workers at the Lexington Medical Center related to their level of work      stress?

1.5 Relevance [BY15] of the Research
The research proposal[BY16]  is relevant to the Hospital management, researchers, and policy makers. For researcher and academicians, the study finding contribute to the wide body of knowledge for understanding the effect of stress at workplace and its relationship as related to workers performance. The proposal[BY17]  also a useful tool for future research related to “work stress and employees performance.” For the Hospital management, the proposal is expected to high some challenges and give some recommendations on how to reduce stress and boost performance. For the work related policy, the research facilitate decision making for programme implementers and policy makers. The health management at the facility is expected to create working environment which harness the positive side of health care workers.
1.6 Organization of the Dissertation [BY18] 
The other part of this research proposal is organized as follows: Chapter two cover definitions of research terms, the theories governing work related stress and performance, the existing research gap, the conceptual frame work and summary of previous research. Chapter three present the proposed research methodology which is adopted in this study. Chapter four present the expected results and summary. 
1.7. Limitations 
This research paper has two limitations. The research focus on specific hospital and other medical staffs such as therapists, and administrators are not included. [BY19] The study is about one public hospital [BY20] and this means that the finding is limited to specific setting. This suggests that the research finding of the research will be limited to doctors, medical attendants, and nurses of Lexington Medical Center. There could be cultural or regional specific factors which make this study specific to geographical location or hospital characteristics. A research with wider coverage would be useful to mitigate the impact of stress in nurses and doctors. 
You can rephrase this whole section and be direct and specific.
  
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW[BY21] 
2.1 Overview
This chapter presents the research literature review. [BY22] The intention of this literature review is to give direction on what has been done in previous studies and what need to be done in future. Therefore, the literature review give the wide context of the research, precisely defining what is within the proposal scope and justifies the decision. This chapter give highlights the concepts of health workers stress and the employees’ performance. Also, the chapter covers the empirical studies, the theories, and the research gap. 
2.2 Conceptual Definitions
2.2.1 Transactional Model of Stress
The transactional model of stress and the coping mechanism address “the stress process as ongoing relationship between environment” and individual where worker interpretations and perceptions of environment play key role in psychological stress. As stated by the transactional theory, work stressors are different among people and they can be handled by appraisals and coping (Haybatollahi, 2010). The research will involve study on people strength and resources to cope with stressful environments. Based on appraisals, people will choose strategies for coping with stress. The model argue that stress can be reduced by “helping the stressed health workers change their perception towards stressors and giving them strategies to cope and improve their confidence” (Dewe & Cooper, 2012). 
The coping mechanism involve use of psychological support, jo      
[BY1]I explained this in one of my emails. Abstract is usually written last because it is the summary of your whole research
 
[BY2]This should be described in the Methodology. The abstract will only give an idea on what method to use and npoty desctribe it. 
 
[BY3]This is not APA format, PLEASE REFER TO YOUR MANUAL OR MY DISSERATION) Take note of the indentation and the numberings.
 
[BY4]Says who? How do you know this? This is a conclusive statement that is obviously not yours. You need this cited.
 
[BY5]omit
 
[BY6]not APA format.
 
[BY7]Good citation
 
[BY8]Omit. We already know that this is a research.
 
[BY9]All these three can be combined into one general objective or purpose of the study.
 
[BY10]Research questions are questions that will drive your research
 
[BY11]This does not seem to be a research question but intended to describe work of medics. What about the work of staff, of administrators, etc. These can be just described. You are not going to do research and collect data to simply describe work. You need to collect data that will show the correalation of work performance to stress..
 
[BY12]
 
[BY13]Not directly relevant. You question should be like “How does stress affect work performance.” With this question, it will drive your research and you will design the methodology to use to collect and analyze data.
 
[BY14]Again this is not a research question. It could be rephrased. What is the impact of stress on the worker’s Performance?” 
 
[BY15]Significance
 
[BY16]Omit. The end result of this is a full blown research not just a proposal. You will be doing only the proposal to this research.
 
[BY17]research
 
[BY18]This is not a dissertation
 
[BY19]This is a good limitation. Earlier on I asked you about administrators, but now here it is clear that the study is limited only to medics.
 
[BY20]Be specific. Go straight to the point that the study is limited to the Lwexington Medical Center. Do not go around the bush. Be direct.
 
[BY21]Omit the numbering and follow my dissertation.
 
[BY22]omit

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