Hypertension A&P 1 Assignment 1 Amanda G. Smith ITT Tech Hypertension: Abnormal blood pressure above 120/80, Prehypertension systolic pressure ranging from 120 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure ranging from 90 to 99 mm Hg. Sage 1 Hypertension: Systolic pressure ranging from 140 to 159 mm Hg, diastolic pressure ranging from 90 to 99 mm Hg. Stage 2 Hypertension: Systolic pressure of 160 mm Hg or higher a diastolic pressure of 100mm Hg or higher. (WWW. Mayclinic. om/health/high-blood-pressure ) Blood pressure is the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries, the more your heart pumps and the narrower the arteries the higher the blood pressure. It is measured by two numbers Systolic (top number: when the first heart beat is heard after releasing the pressure on the blood pressure cuff), and Diastolic (bottom number: the last heart beat heard when releasing the pressure on the blood pressure cuff. ) Hypertension is classified as a negative feedback system. (see figure on Pg. 728 7th edition A&P copy wright 2007 Elane N.
Marieb &Katja Hoehn) Influence of selected hormones on Variables affecting blood pressure (see table 19. 2 Pg. 129 7th edition A&P copy wright 2007 Elane N. Marieb &Katja Hoehn) Organ systems involved Cardiovascular system Circulatory System Renal System Respiratory System With Hypertension the body is unable to maintain homeostasis because the heart is unable to maintain a proper heart rate. This may be due to a multitude of diagnoses the Pt. may have. Some Factors of Hypertension include: (Pg. 733, 7th edition A&P copy wright 2007 Elane N.
Marieb &Katja Hoehn) Smoking: Nicotine enhances the sympathetic nervous system’s vasoconstrictor effects, thus narrowing blood vessels, and causing high blood pressure. Diet: Dietary factors that contribute to Hypertension, high intake of sodium: Causes the body to retain fluid, thus increasing blood pressure, saturated fats, cholesterol and deficiencies in certain ions (potassium, calcium, and magnesium. ) To little potassium: Potassium helps balance the amount of sodium in the cells, thus retaining to much sodium, thus retaining fluid and increasing blood pressure.
Too little vitamin D: may affect an enzyme produced by the kidneys (renin) affecting blood pressure regulation. Obesity: being overweight can cause high blood pressure. Diabetes Mellitus Stress: Particularly Pts. whose pressure rises during a stressful event. Increase in your heart rate causing the heart to work harder and putting the Pt. at risk for a heart attack. Age: Clinically signs of hypertension usually show after age 40. Women are more likely to develop Hypertension after menopause. Medications: Birth control pills, illegal drugs, cold medications, decongestants. Chronic Hypertension is a common and dangerous disease that warns of increased peripheral resistance. An estimated 30% of people over the age of 50 are hypertensive. Although this “silent killer” is usually asymptomatic for the first 10 to 20 yrs. , it slowly but surely strains the heart and damages the arteries. Prolonged hypertension is the major cause of heart failure, vascular disease, renal failure and stroke. Because the heart is forced to pump against greater resistance, it larges. When finally strained beyond its capacity to respond, the heart weakens and its walls become flabby.
Hypertension also ravages the blood vessels, accelerating the progress of atherosclerosis. As the vessels become increasingly blocked, blood flow to the tissues becomes inadequate and vascular complications appear in the brain, heart, kidneys, and retinas of the eyes. Hypertension is defined physiologically as a condition of sustained arterial pressure of 140/90 or higher, the higher the pressure, greater the risk for serious cardiovascular problems. As a rule, elevated diastolic pressures are more significant medically, because they always indicate progressive occlusion and/ or hardening of the atrial tree. (Pg. 733 7th edition A&P copy wright 2007 Elane N. Marieb &Katja Hoehn) Education to the PT. The Dr. has diagnosed you with Hypertension. I am going to explain what that means to you. I am also going to send you with some educational materials you can look over when you get home. Blood pressure is the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries, the more your heart pumps and the narrower the arteries the higher the blood pressure.
It is measured by two numbers Systolic (top number: when the first heart beat is heard after releasing the pressure on the blood pressure cuff), and Diastolic (bottom number: the last heart beat heard when releasing the pressure on the blood pressure cuff. ) You should pick up a small blood pressure monitor and take your blood pressure three (3) times a day. In the morning when you wake up, in the afternoon (lunch time) and in the evening before you go to bed. Also anytime in between when you feel your blood pressure to be abnormal. Take a note book and take down all the recordings with date and time. This you will bring back to the Dr. o he/she can proceed with your plan of care. This will also give you a good idea of what your blood pressure ranges. If the Dr. has prescribed any medications, be sure to follow the directions carefully. If you take too much it could result in your blood pressure dropping to rapidly. This will cause you to feel faint and dizzy. Please if you skip a dose contact the Dr. and again do not double up on the medication. Usually you can just take your next dose without any issues. If you are experiencing chest pain call 911 or go to the ER. Make sure you have a healthy diet, keep track of your sodium intake and if you smoke STOP.
Make sure you exorcise regularly. Blood pressure runs differently for every person. Normal is 115/75 or 120/80,If it ranges 160 or higher diastolic or 90 or higher systolic contact the Dr. or go to the ER for a BP check. Complications if you do not follow your Dr. ’s orders. (WWW. Mayoclinic. com/health/high-blood-pressure) Heart attack or stroke: High blood pressure can cause hardening and thickening of the arteries, which can lead to heart attack, stroke or other complications. Aneurysm: increased blood pressure can cause your blood vessels to weaken and bulge, forming an aneurysm. If the aneurysm ruptures it can be life threatening.
Heart failure: To pump blood against the higher pressure in your vessels, your heart muscle thickens. Eventually, the thickened muscle may have a hard time pumping enough blood to meet your body’s needs, which can lead to heart failure. Thickened, narrowed or torn blood vessels in the eyes: this can lead to vision loss. Weakened and narrowed blood vessels in your kidneys: this can prevent these organs from functioning normally and can lead to kidney failure. Sources used 7th edition A&P copy wright 2007 Elane N. Marieb & Katja Hoehn WWW. Mayoclinic. com/health/high-blood-pressure