The dermis is composed of the papillary layer and the ___________. | epidermis| | cutaneous plexus| | hypodermis| | -reticular layerThe reticular and papillary layers together compose the dermis. | What structure is responsible for the strength of attachment between the epidermis and dermis? | stratum corneum| | basement membrane| | -epidermal ridge| | stratum lucidumThe deeper the epidermal ridge, the stronger the attachment. | The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are | Dendritic cells. | | -keratinocytes. | | adipocytes. | | melanocytes. | fibroblasts. | The tough “horny” superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the | stratum spinosum. | | stratum lucidum. | | stratum granulosum. | | -stratum corneum. | | Stratum germinativum. | Large quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called the | stratum spinosum. | | stratum lucidum. | | stratum granulosum. | | -stratum corneum. | | stratum germinativum. | Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed ________ perspiration. | sensible| | latent| | -insensible| | inactive|
The layer of the skin that provides a barrier against bacteria as well as chemical and mechanical injuries is the | dermis. | | stratum corneum. | | -epidermis. | | subcutaneous layer. Water loss from insensible perspirationIs approximately . 5 liters a dayThe epidermis of the skin is composed of which type of tissue? keratinized stratified squamous epitheliumThe layer of stem cells that constantly divide to renew the epidermis is the| | is approximately 0. 5 liters a day. | | depends on apocrine sweat glands. | | is negligible. | | always exceeds sensible perspiration. | is too small to be measured reliably. | | Stratum germinatiumThe protein that reduces water loss at the skin surface isKeratinWhile walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of epidermis did the thorn penetrate? 5From what structure does sensible perspiration occur? Sweat glandsCell divisions within the stratum __________ replace more superficial cells which eventually die and fall off. GerminativumThe cells of stratum corneum were initially produced in the __________. tratum germinativumMelanocytes _____________. store melanin in melanosomesThe primary pigments contained in the epidermis arecarotene and melanin. An albino individual lacks the ability to produceMelaninMelanin is produced by melanocytes within the stratum ________. BasaleThe dark pigment melanin is produced within __________. MelanocytesThe layer directly beneath the epidermis is the __________. DemisCell divisions within the stratum __________ replace more superficial cells which eventually die and fall off.
GerminativumWhich of these is not an accessory structure of the skin? DermisThe epidermal layer that consists almost entirely of keratin is the __________. Stratum corneumThe cells of stratum corneum were initially produced in the __________. stratum germinativumEach of the following is a function of the integumentary system, exceptSynthesis of vitamin CThe two components of the integumentary system are thecutaneous membrane and accessory structures. the type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis rekeratinocytesThe tough “horny” superficial layer of the epidermis is known as theStratum corneumLarge quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called theStratum corneumWater loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed ________ perspiration. InsensibleThe layer of the epidermis that contains abundant desmosomes is theStratum spinosumThe most dangerous type of skin cancer is termed ________. Melanoma**Skin cancer that starts in the stratum germinativum is called ________Types of skin cancers includesquamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and basal cell carcinoma.
Children in northern regions experience months of inadequate sunlight exposure on the skin. To prevent possible abnormal bone development, what essential organic nutrient is necessary in the diet? CholecalciferolAn important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight isVitamin dThe epidermis receives blood from which of the following? Dermal arteries called papillary plexusThe layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the ________ layer.
ReticularThe protein that permits stretching and recoiling of the skin isElastinSkin inflammation that primarily involves the papillary layer is termedDermatitisA surgical incision parallel to the lines of cleavageCloses and heals with relatively little scarringStretch marks occur whenthe skin is so extensively stretched that its elastic limits are exceeded. Which tissue is located in the region labeled “2”? Areolar connective tissueWhich of these cells produce the fibers found within the reticular layer of the dermis?
FibroblastsThe skin can move easily over the underlying muscles because of the loose connective tissue within the __________. HypodermisThe layer primarily responsible for the strength of the skin is the __________ layer. ReticularWhich of the following glands secretes sweat into the hair follicle? ApocrineA common cause of dandruff isInflammation around sebaceous glandsThe ________ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty. Apocrine sweatSensible perspiration is produced by ________ glands.
Merocrine sweatThe highest concentration of merocrine sweat glands is foundOn the palms of the hands________ sweat glands are widely distributed across the body surface, ________ glands are located wherever hair follicles exist, and ________ sweat glands are found only in a few areas. Merocrine; sebaceous; apocrineEach of the following statements concerning sebaceous glands and sebum is true, except one. Identify the exception. | Most sebaceous glands are coiled tubular glands. | Merocrine sweat glandssecrete a watery fluid directly onto the surface of the skin.
Which of the following types of glands helps cool the body? Merocrine sweat glandsSudoriferous glands are also called __________ glands. SweatMerocrine sweat glands are most abundant in the __________. HandsCollagen to repair a deep skin wound is produced by __________. Dermal fibroblastsMast cells are triggering a response to injury during which phase of repair? InflammatoryDuring which phase of injury repair is the scab undermined by epidermal cells? ProliferationDuring the proliferation phase, around a week after injury, the scab has been undermined by epidermal cells.
Shedding of the scab and completion of the epidermis occurs during which phase of injury repair? MaturationThe type of burn that may require a skin graft is a3rd degree burnWhich of these is a primary role of the skeletal system? Calcium homeostasisLeverageMuscle attachment siteWhich of these is not part of the skeletal system? TendonsPart of skeletal system:Bones cartilage ligamentsThe end of a long bone is known as the __________. EpiphysisThe patella is an example of a __________ bone. Sesamoid boneOsteoblasts are squamous cells that develop into ___________.
OsteocytesOsteoblasts differentiate from __________. Osteoprogenitor cellsWhich of the following characteristics applies to the cells known as osteoclasts? The cells dissolve matrixCells that secrete collagen fibers are called ________. OsteoblastsCells that are found in small depressions on the endosteal surfaces are the ________. OsteoclastsCells that free calcium from bone to maintain blood calcium levels are called ________. OsteoclastsIn bone, the calcium phosphate forms crystals of ________. HydroxyapatiteStem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts are called ________ cells.
OsteoprogenitorThe narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are calledCanaliculiThe lacunae of osseous tissue containOsteocytesThe most abundant cell type in bone isOsteocytes________ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum. OsteoprogenitorThrough the action of osteoclasts,Bony matrix is dissolvedCells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are calledOsteoblastsThis cell functions to _________. Break down boneSpongy bone is filled with ____________. Red marrowThe type of bone that forms the diaphysis of a long bone is called __________ bone.
CompactSpongy bone comprises an open meshwork of osseous spicules called __________. TrabeculaeThe superficial membrane of a bone is called the ________. PeriosteumThe matrix in spongy bone forms struts and arches called ________. Trabeculae________ fibers are stronger than steel when stretched. CollagenBlood is distributed from the surface of a bone to deeper central canals through channels known as ________. Perforating canalsod is distributed from the surface of a bone to deeper central canals through channels known as ________.
Endosteum________ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles. SpongyWhich statement is true regarding calcium in bone matrix? Calcium is found in crystals called hydroxyapatitethe trabeculae of spongy boneare organized along stress linesThe structural units of mature compact bone are calledOsteonsFat is stored within theMedullary cavity________ marrow is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone. RedWhen production of sex hormones increases at puberty, epiphyseal platesBecome narrowerMigration of osteoblasts into the ___________ creates the __________. piphysis, secondary ossification centerMigration of capillaries and osteoblasts into the epiphysis creates the secondary ossification center. The cell designated by the arrow _________. requires oxygen and nutrients to functionOxygen and nutrients are essential to osteoblasts and formation of new bone. Migration of blood vessels into the central region of the cartilage bone model, starting bone development, occurs at which site? Primary ossification centerIf osteoblasts are more active than osteoclasts, bones may become __________. Any of these changes may result if osteoblasts are more active than osteoclasts.
Which of these cell types plays a role in bone remodeling? osteoblast| | | osteocyte| The ongoing process of tearing down and rebuilding bone matrix is called ________ . RemodelingCalcitriol is required for __________. absorbing dietary calcium and phosphateWhich of these is not required for normal bone formation? Vitamin EWhich of these factors does not contribute significantly to normal bone formation? Potassium intake________ hormones stimulate osteoblasts to produce bone matrix. SexExcessive growth hormone prior to puberty could result inGiantismA lack of exercise couldresult in porous and eak bones. When stress is applied to a bone,the minerals in the bone produce a weak electrical field that attracts osteoblastsRoughly what portion of the body’s total calcium content is deposited in the skeleton? 99%The hormone __________ increases the blood level of calcium. parathyroid hormoneA drop in blood calcium levels stimulates the secretion of __________. parathyroid hormoneHow is vitamin D (vitamin D3) related to calcium homeostasis in bone? Vitamin D is involved in calcium absorption by the digestive tract so calcium is available for ossification and remodeling.
A child with rickets often hasBowed legsHundreds of years ago explorers often died of scurvy. How can this bone-related disease be prevented? Supplement the diet with fresh fruit rich in vitamin C. The hormone calcitonin functions todecrease the level of calcium ion in the blood. Parathyroid hormone functions in all of the following ways, except that itInhibits calcitonin secretionElevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormoneCalcitoninThe most abundant mineral in the human body isCalciumParathyroid hormone causes what response in the kidneys?
Retention of calcium ionsWhich hormone increases blood calcium upon secretion? Parathyroid hormoneCalcium levels below 8. 5 mg/dL causes PTH production and calcium releaseWhen a fractured bone heals it leaves a thickened region known as a ____________. CallusWhat is normally found at a fracture hematoma? Dead boneBone fragmentsBlood clotIn a __________ fracture, the broken bone penetrates through the skin. CompoundAfter a fracture of the diaphysis has healed, the thickened region that results is called theExternal callusA bone scan of an older patient revealed the beginnings of osteoporosis. Which of these interventions is not recommended?
Bed restthe natural age-related loss of bone mass is called ________. OsteopeniaIf a tumor secretes high levels of osteoclast-activating factor, which of the following would you expect to occur as a result of this condition? increases in blood levels of calcium| | | bone fragility| | decreased bone density| Aging has what effect on the skeletal system? Loss of calcium and collagen fibers from matrixA condition in which bone becomes riddled with holes is calledOsteoporosisIf osteoclasts are more active than osteoblasts, bones will becomeOsteopenicWhy does osteoporosis affect more women than men?
Women have a decrease in sex hormones after menopause whereas men continue to produce male sex hormones throughout adulthood. The bone in this image is __________. Typical of osteopeniaOsteoclast-activating factor does all of the following, except that itis released in large amounts early in life. Which of the following is not a part of the axial division of the skeletal system? Pelvic girdleWhich of the following is not part of the axial skeleton? Pelvic girdleHow many bones make up the axial skeleton? 80Which of the following bones is NOT part of the axial skeleton?
PatellaWhich of the following bones is NOT part of the vertebral column? RibsWhich bone of the axial skeleton protects the brain? CraniumThe hard palate is formed primarily by the __________ bones. MaxillaryWhich structure does the sella turcica support? Pituitary glandWhich bone supports the larynx superiorly? HyoidWhich two bones contribute to the zygomatic arch? Temporal and zygomatiche ________ bone is unusual because it doesn’t contact another bone. Hyoid The inferior portion of the nasal septum is formed by the ________. VomerIn the condition known as a(n) ________, the nasal septum has a bend in it.
Deviated septumInfection of the large process on the temporal bone would be called ________. MastoiditisDamage to the temporal bone would most likely affect the sense(s) ofHearing and balanceThe function of the hyoid bone is toAnchor the tongue musclesThe bony portion of the nasal septum is formed by theperpendicular plate of the ethmoid and vomer bone. What organ is located in the lacrimal fossa? Tear glandLigaments that support the hyoid bone are attached to theStyloid processThe occipital condyles of the skull articulate with theAtlasThe foramen magnum is found in the ________ bone.
OccipitalNerves that serve the lower lip and chin pass through the ____________. Mental foramenA nerve that carries sensory information from the teeth and gums of the lower jaw passes through theMandibular foramenWhich of the following statements about the paranasal sinuses is true? They are lined with ciliated epitheliumMake skull bones lighterConnect nasal cavitiesWhich of these bones is not part of the orbital complex? VomerThe paranasal sinuses are located in all of the following bones, except theZygomaticThe widest intervertebral discs are found in the ________ region.
LumbarThe odontoid process is found on theAxisThe part of the vertebrae that transfers weight along the axis of the vertebral column is theVertebral bodyThe vertebral column contains ________ lumbar vertebrae. 5The vertebral column contains ________ thoracic vertebrae. 12True ribs have cartilage directly connected to the sternum and are therefore also called ________ ribs. VertebrosternalHumans normally have __________ pairs of ribs12 | | | loss of calcium and collagen fibers from matrix| | increase in adipose tissue in epiphyses| | | | Osteoclast| |