Academic Success A By Product Of Environmental Factors Education Essay
The research inquiry of this essay is, ‘To What Extent is Academic Success a By-product of Environmental Factors? ‘ I investigated this inquiry by researching the consequence that environmental factors have on academic success. This was so moderated by assorted other possible factors, including cognitive and biological 1s. I evaluated my findings by weighing out the significance of each factor and the value of the back uping surveies. Upon finishing the research it was found motive was a really important factor act uponing academic success, non merely because the surveies described were dependable and gave strong support, but besides because motive linked with the other factors excessively, for illustration, it showed up in equal webs and rearing. This brought me to the decision that motive was the most dominant factor impacting academic success. After motive, I evaluated that environmental factors were the following most influential factors, followed by intelligence. It was besides noted that the factors did n’t lie on separate continuums and could be combined to increase academic success. Furthermore, the factors should be researched more jointly in future research to measure the research inquiry, instead than look intoing each individually.
Much research has gone into instruction in psychological science, peculiarly the factors act uponing academic success. However, non adequate research has focused on finding which factors are the most influential. Such factors may include environmental influences ; such as equal webs, parents, instructors and socioeconomic position, cognitive influences such as motive, and biological influences such as intelligence.
The chief failing of the bing research on factors impacting academic success is the focal point on merely one factor, and the deficiency of comparing to other factors. One such illustration is the experiment conducted by Kruse ( 1996 ) , where the influence of socioeconomic position ( SES ) on academic accomplishment was investigated by comparing grade norms of pupils from different income groups. Results showed an undistinguished difference between the groups, nevertheless research cited in Kruse ‘s reappraisal of literature suggested otherwise. Despite the usage of this survey to find the consequence of SES on academic accomplishment, it does non assist to find how influential SES compared to other factors.
However, one strength of the bing research is the copiousness and dependability of it. As it is a popular country of research due to its pertinence to instruction, the informations and decisions made can be considered extremely dependable.
The chief subject of this essay is factors impacting academic success, but more exactly, the research inquiry is ‘To What Extent is Academic Success a By-product of Environmental Factors? ‘ The footings ‘Academic Success ‘ and ‘Environmental Factors ‘ should be defined ; Academic success is the high accomplishment and public presentation in academic topics most frequently measured in footings of standardised tonss or mean classs in research, and Environmental Factors include peer webs, parents, instructors and socioeconomic position. Both footings will be defined in more item in the reappraisal of literature.
Reappraisal of Literature
The primary intent of schools is seen as fixing pupils to go knowing, responsible, and caring citizens ( Payton et al. , 2000 ; Zins, Elias, Greenberg, & A ; Weissberg, 2000 ) . This is consistent with Combs ( 1986 ) who argued that schools are concerned with making the sorts of experiences that develop productive, healthy people. Fullan argued that the intent of instruction is to construct larning communities- communities that conveying moral intent back into instruction and reconnect instructors with their cardinal intent of doing a difference in immature people ‘s lives ( 2000 ) . Clearly, instruction is about more than merely accomplishing in tests, it is about developing emotionally and socially, and fixing for life beyond school. However, for the intent of this essay a remarkable less nuanced position of instruction: Education ‘s intent is to cultivate high-achieving pupils. Such a narrow focal point has restrictions but it will let the subject to be explored within the word bound. Therefore, person who achieves academic success is person who performs good in academics/education. Academic success is the high accomplishment and public presentation in academic topics. Achievement and public presentation is measured through tonss on tests, trials and Grade Point Averages ( GPAs ) . Examples include the International Baccalaureate, the A-Levels and Scholastic Aptitude Tests ( SATs ) . These accomplishment and aptitude trials step cognition and apprehension of a course of study. Students who are non intelligent are still able to accomplish extremely in these tests as there is a whole scope of factors impacting public presentation. The undermentioned subdivisions will discourse factors impacting academic success.
a ) Socioeconomic position
Today many definitions of socioeconomic position ( SES ) include the thought of capital ( resources, assets ) ( Bradley & A ; Corwyn, 2002 ) . Capital includes fiscal and material resources ( income, assets ) , human or immaterial resources ( e.g. , parental instruction ) , and societal resources ( those obtained through societal webs and connexions ) ( Putnam, 2000 ) . Intuitively, SES seems to be really influential for a kid ‘s motive and academic success. Children from non-low income households have the benefit of interacting with parents of higher educational accomplishment and concern success of some degree. Kruse ( 1996 ) argued that this environment can actuate pupils to endeavor for success and are hence more motivated in this respect. The nexus between household SES and a kid ‘s academic accomplishment is good established ( Meece, 2002 ) . Child from lower socioeconomic backgrounds typically display lower academic accomplishment and are at greater hazard of school failure and dropout ( Borkowski & A ; Thorpe, 1994 ) ; but low SES does non do low accomplishment, instead it is associated with it.
In a survey conducted by Kruse ( 1996 ) , to find so if pupils from low socioeconomic environments have lower academic accomplishment compared to the academic accomplishment of pupils from higher socioeconomic environments, research cited in the reappraisal of literature provinces that there is an achievement spread between low income and non-low income pupils ( Yellin & A ; Koetting, 1991 ) . Kruse used a sample of 66 6th-grade scientific discipline pupils at Travis Middle School in Texas. Students were divided into a low income group and a non-low income group. Midterm and concluding grade-averages were determined from each group. The midterm and concluding mean tonss for the non-low income pupils were 86.72 and 88.17. The average tonss for the low income pupils were 76.70 and 80.11. Kruse concluded that there was no important difference in academic accomplishment between pupils from low income environments and those from non-low income environments. However, grounds for the differing decisions between Kruse ‘s and the psychologists cited in the literature reappraisal may be Kruse used a little sample of 66 pupils. A larger sample would be necessary to do generalisations to a larger population. Kruse limited academic accomplishment to science norms for two tests. Academic accomplishment could be measured by including all nucleus topics. Besides, the rating clip period should be increased from one academic twelvemonth to several. Kruse and Yellin & A ; Koetting clearly had opposing decisions as to whether socioeconomic position influences academic accomplishment, supplying an unsure overall decision.
B ) Peer webs
An increasing sum of research has examined the function of equal webs. A equal web is a big group of equals with whom pupils associate. Students in equal webs tend to be extremely similar to each other ( Cairns, Cairns, & A ; Neckerman, 1989 ) , which enhances the likeliness of influence by patterning. Sage and Kindermann ( 1999 ) found that equal groups tended to back up or disapprove of equals ‘ behaviors depending on whether the behaviors were consistent with group norms. Students with higher academic motive and accomplishment tended to be members of groups more motivated for faculty members and they received group blessing for positive academic behavior. Students who were in academically motivated groups were extrinsically motivated because when academic success was achieved, the group ‘s blessing acted as a wages. Students with lower motive and accomplishment were likely to be members of less motivated groups ; their blessing for positive behaviors chiefly came from instructors. These pupils were less motivated to execute good because it could take to ejection from the group. They concluded that equal webs played a important and direct function in impacting academic success.
A survey back uping equal webs being an influence on academic success is that of Steinberg et Al. ( 1996 ) , who tracked pupils over 3 old ages, from 9th class to the terminal of 11th class. They determined whether pupils who entered high school tantamount academically ( classs ) , but who joined different equal webs, remained stable academically. Consequences suggested that the equal web with which a pupil associates is really of import in academic public presentation and delinquency. Children in higher academically orientated groups achieved higher classs during high school compared to those in lower academically orientated crowds.
It is clear from both surveies that being in a extremely motivated and academically orientated equal web can take to greater academic success, and the reverse for a less motivated and academic equal web.
degree Celsius ) Parents
There is a great trade of grounds back uping the hypothesis that the quality of a kid ‘s early acquisition in the place environment relates positively to the development of intelligence ( Meece, 2002 ; Senechal & A ; Lefevre, 2002 ) , and parental engagement in schooling besides predicts academic accomplishment ( Englund, Luckner, Whaley, & A ; Egeland, 2004 ) .
Gottfried, Fleming, and Gottfried ( 1998 ) conducted a longitudinal survey analyzing the function of cognitive stimulation in the place environment on kids ‘s academic accomplishment. Home environment was measured by household treatments, attending at cultural events, importance of reading, and household involvement in art, music and literature. This was recorded utilizing direct observation in the place every bit good as parental study. There were 107 kids take parting. Each participant ‘s development was examined across a wide array of spheres ( e.g. , cognitive, behavioral, academic ) . Home environment was assessed at age 8, and academic accomplishment at ages 9,10 and 13. Consequences found that a cognitively stimulating place environment is a important and positive forecaster of academic accomplishment. Supplying farther support, even when SES was controlled, place environment continued to positively predict subsequent academic accomplishment.
The measuring of place environment through direct observation and parent studies provided ecologically valid informations. The findings were besides consistent with the organic structure of literature, farther heightening its cogency ; nevertheless it is for future research to find the generalisability of the findings for all populations.
Rearing manners can besides do a difference in a kid ‘s academic motive, which leads to academic success. Achievement is enhanced when parents allow kids to hold input in determinations, province outlooks as suggestions, acknowledge kids ‘s feelings and demands, and supply kids with picks ( Dornbusch, Ritter, Liederman, Roberts, & A ; Fraleigh, 1987 ) . In contrast, rearing manners that are excessively controlling or excessively permissive can sabotage a kid ‘s motive and accomplishment.
Overall, the research supports the theory that parental engagement and place environment can straight impact academic success, and indirectly through increasing motive therefore success.
vitamin D ) Teachers
There have been many probes into how teaching patterns affect pupil motive. One such probe was carried out by Veldman and Brophy ( 1974 ) . The purpose of the survey was to find whether instructors influence pupil accomplishment. The participants included 275 female instructors for second- and third-grade participated. The instructor effectivity, schoolroom behavior, and personal features of the participants were measured. The pupils ‘ predicted public presentation on a post-test was based on a ) pretest, B ) student sex, degree Celsius ) twelvemonth of testing, and vitamin D ) instructor. Teacher effectivity was measured by the class norms their pupils achieved. In each comparing, one of these influences was omitted to find its part to the pupil ‘s success on the post-test. Results found that student sex made no important difference. There were systematic differences among the three old ages of proving ; nevertheless this was to be expected. The instructor variable caused a important addition in prognostic efficiency. Therefore, instructors did do a difference. Methodologically, the survey was sound as the instructor choice process eliminated new instructors and instructors who had late switched classs.
Velman and Brophy ‘s ( 1974 ) survey contradicted the consequences from statements based on the Coleman Report ( Coleman, et al. , 1966 ) , which shared that schools do n’t do a difference, instead the pupils do. However, they used the term schools instead than instructors. Schools are an inappropriate unit for analysis as the instructors vary in ability and dissemble the true quality of schooling.
The schoolroom clime refers to the ambiance of the classroom- it ‘s societal, psychological, and emotional features ( Dunkin & A ; Biddle, 1974 ) . The schoolroom clime is of great importance as it relates to student accomplishment. Lewin, Lippitt, and White ( 1939 ) argue that different signifiers of leading affect accomplishment and behavior. They conducted a survey to back up their hypothesis ; grownup leaders supervised 10-year-old male childs as they worked on a group undertaking. The male childs were exposed to three different types of leading ; Autocratic-cold and harsh, took control and told the male childs what to make, presume full duty, and did non let the male childs to lend ; Democratic- worked with the male childs co-operatively, stimulated them about how to finish the undertaking, posed inquiries, encouraged suggestions ; Permissive- hands-off attack, minimum supervising, did non supply construction, suggestions or aid. Productivity was greatest with the autocratic and democratic manners. However, under the autocratic leader the male childs were dying, tense and submissive. The male childs preferred the democratic leading. The ambiance was group-orientated, concerted and friendly. Although the survey was non conducted in a school ; the consequences have clear schoolroom deductions: permissive leading creates pandemonium and an unproductive environment. Authoritarian leading leads to high productiveness but besides defeat and negative group atmosphere. Democratic leading leads to productiveness and a positive ambiance.
Davis has suggested that one critical variable to this survey is the grade of emotional support or heat provided by the leader ( 2003 ) . Teachers who provide strong emotional support facilitate teacher-student relationships and pupil accomplishment. This concludes that instructors do act upon academic success, and is maximized with the usage of a democratic leading manner combined with heat and support.
While the environment clearly influences academic success, there is besides much research look intoing how byproducts of genetic sciences, such as intelligence can impact success.
The undermentioned definition of intelligence comes from “ Mainstream Science on Intelligence ” , which was signed by 52 intelligence research workers:
A really general mental capableness that, among other things, involves the ability to ground, program, work out jobs, think abstractly, comprehend complex thoughts, learn rapidly and larn from experience. It is non simply book acquisition, a narrow academic accomplishment, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader capableness for groking our surroundings- ” catching on ” , “ doing sense ” of things, or “ calculating out ” what to make. ( Gottfredson, 1997 )
Abisamra ( 2000 ) conducted a survey, which aimed to find the relationship between intelligence, both emotional and academic intelligence, and academic accomplishment. The sample consisted of 500 11th graders from public and private schools in Alabama. Emotional intelligence was measured utilizing the EQ-i trial, academic intelligence was measured utilizing an IQ trial, and academic accomplishment was measured by ciphering a mean of all the classs of each pupil. The quantitative information was analyzed and a relationship was established, being that both emotional and academic intelligence were closely relative to academic success. One major defect in this survey is the usage of an IQ trial to mensurate academic intelligence ; IQ trials pose many jobs, such as the cultural prejudices. Therefore, the consequences may be somewhat inaccurate.
From Abisamra ‘s experiment, it can be argued that intelligence, which is from a biological position genetically predisposed, plays a significant function in impacting academic success.
Asides from biological influences based on the medical theoretical account, there is research into how knowledge plays a function on academic success, in peculiar, how motive influences it.
There is much argument over the absolute definition of the term motive ; nevertheless for the intent of this essay one that captures the cardinal elements of motive will be used:
‘Motivation is the procedure whereby purposive activity is instigated and sustained ‘ ( Pintrich, Schunk, Meece, 2007 p.4 )
There are two types of motive ; intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motive refers to the motive to prosecute in an action for its ain interest, without obvious external inducements. Intrinsically motivated pupils perform undertakings because they truly enjoy them ; they do n’t trust on explicit or touchable wagess because take parting in the undertaking is in itself a wages. They may believe that what they are larning is important or they think that what they are making is of import. Lepper and Hodell ( 1989 ) place four chief beginnings of intrinsic motive: challenge, wonder, control, and phantasy. Activities that test the pupils ‘ accomplishments may be per se actuating ( Deci, 1975 ; Harter, 1978 ; White, 1959 ) . When ends are of intermediate trouble and success is non certain, attainment of disputing ends shows scholars that they are going more competent, which raises self-efficacy and perceived control over results. In bend, scholars are eager to put new, ambitious ends, keeping the intrinsic motive. Intrinsic motive may besides originate from pupils who are piqued by activities that are surprising or incongruous with bing thoughts. Such incongruousnesss motivate pupils to seek information and decide the disagreement. Curious scholars who believe that the spread is come-at-able feel efficacious and motivated to pull off the spread and learn ( Berlyne, 1960 ) . Students who feel a sense of control over their acquisition and undertaking engagement besides may be per se motivated ( de Charms, 1968 ; Deci, 1980 ) . Leting pupils picks in activities and a function in set uping regulations and processs promotes perceptual experiences of control. Perceived control can excite a sense of self-efficacy for executing good ( Schunk, 1995 ) . Finally, intrinsic motive can be promoted with activities that involve scholars in phantasy and pretense through simulations and games that present them with state of affairss that are non really present ( Lepper & A ; Hodell, 1989 ) . As shown in Figure 1, game like elements can add intending to what might otherwise be a deadening activity.
Question for the bottom format: Player 1 drips ball from terminal to mid-court and passes ball to Player 2. Player 2 drips ball to where Player 3 is and passes it to Player 3, who shoots basket. Down what fraction of the tribunal did the participants dribble?
Figure: Fractions are presented in traditional format ( top ) and game like format ( underside ) .
Research shows that intrinsic motive for originative public presentation suffers when wagess are offered ( Eisenberger & A ; Armeli, 1997 ; Eisenberger, Armeli & A ; Pretz, 1998 ; Eisenberger & A ; Rhoades, 2001 ) , nevertheless Cameron and Pierce ( 1994 ) reviewed 96 experimental surveies on this subject and found that wagess did non diminish intrinsic motive. The lone negative consequence on intrinsic motive was found when wagess were given merely for working on a undertaking. The differing decisions may hold been due to the criticized conceptual and methodological evidences on Cameron and Pierce ‘s ( 1994 ) portion ( Deci et al. , 1999 ) . There are dissensions about how to utilize processs to sum up across diverse surveies and conceptual concerns such as the definition and measuring of intrinsic and extrinsic motive ( Sansone & A ; Harackiewicz, 2000 ) .
Extrinsic motive refers to the motive to prosecute in an activity in order to achieve consequences such as wagess or teacher congratulations. Extrinsically motivated pupils execute undertakings merely because they believe that take parting will ensue in expressed wagess ( money or good classs ) or turning away of penalty.
In footings of instruction, Condry & A ; Chamber ( 1978 ) criticize those who use wagess ( e.g. more free clip, stars ) to actuate pupils because such final payments are typically unrelated to the act of larning itself, and are likely to pull attending off from the benefits of larning. Consequently, many fear that larning will go a manner to acquire wagess, and when these wagess are no longer present, the motive to larn lessenings.
It should besides be noted that intrinsic and extrinsic motive are non on one continuum, intrinsic being the highest and extrinsic the lowest. They should be thought of on separate continuums, for illustration person can be both extremely per se and extrinsically motivated on a undertaking, and it seems that this would be the most desirable combination ( Lepper, Corpus, & A ; Iyengar, 2005 ) .
Motivation in Education
Therefore, it is clear that motive plays a really important function in instruction ; it can act upon what, when and how we learn ( Schunk, 1995 ) .
Dennis, Phinney and Chuateco ( 2005 ) conducted a longitudinal survey aimed at look intoing the ways in which motivational features and environmental societal supported contribute to the academic results of college pupils. The survey consisted of 100 college pupils changing in cultural backgrounds, SES and motive. Data refering pupil motive was collected from the participants utilizing studies taken in the autumn and spring of their sophomore twelvemonth. The studies were piloted with freshers. GPAs and informations sing the participants SES were collected from the university records.
Consequences found that motive to go to college based on personal involvement, rational wonder and the desire to achieve a successful calling were prognostic of college accommodation and committedness. Family outlook motive, nevertheless, was non significantly related to college results.
There are restrictions to this survey. Most of the information was based on self study steps, which can take to inaccuracies due to participant dishonesty. The sample was comprised of cultural minorities ; hence, as is true with any survey, the findings can merely be interpreted to a certain extent. Genralisations to other cultural minority colleges or other cultural groups must be made with cautiousness.
This survey suggested that although intrinsic motive is dependable forecaster of academic success, extrinsic motive is non a dependable forecaster.
Another survey proposing the influence motive has on academic accomplishment is that of Busato et Al. ( 1999 ) . The purpose of the survey was to look into how rational ability, larning manner, personality and achievement motive relate to academic success. Learning manner was measured utilizing a questionnaire. The Big Five personality factors test measured personality. The “ Prestatie-Motivatie-Test ” measured achievement motive. A series of ability trials measured rational ability. Points are allocated to psychology pupils harmonizing to how much work they have completed, so academic success was measured by the sum of points gained at the terminal of each academic twelvemonth. In entire, 409 pupils participated and information was gathered in the first hebdomad of first-year twelvemonth through psychological trials. Harmonizing to the correlational analyses, achievement motive and rational ability were associated positively with academic success. This survey was ecologically valid due to its big sample size and clear measuring of variables.
The two predating surveies have made it clear that while motive is a cardinal factor in accomplishing academic success, it must be noted that intrinsic motive plays a much greater function than extrinsic.
After holding completed the research, it has become evident that there is a assortment of influences on academic success runing from environmental factors to cognitive and biological. The environmental factors were comprised of SES, equal webs, instructors and rearing. Steinberg et Al. ( 1996 ) suggested that equal webs significantly influence academic accomplishment. Gottfried, Fleming, and Gottfried ( 1998 ) found that a stimulating place environment leads to greater success excessively. On the other manus, Kruse ( 1996 ) concluded that SES had no important affect on academic success ; nevertheless his survey offered several critical defects. Kruse cited Yellin & A ; Koetting ( 1991 ) , who found that SES did, in fact, have an consequence on academic success, go forthing this factor still questionable. Teacher influences were so investigated. Veldman and Brophy ( 1974 ) found that instructors had a strong influence on pupil success, despite research demoing otherwise. This contradictory research was discarded by Veldman and Brophy as weak because of its effort to analyze the consequence of the quality of schools instead than single instructors on academic success. Overall, environmental factors appeared to hold a great consequence on academic success.
To chair the statement intelligence was explored and it was found that both emotional and academic intelligence play an of import function in doing academic success ( Abisamra, 2000 ) . Unfortunately, the survey had defects refering the method of measuring for the variables, offering perchance inaccurate consequences. However, it could be concluded that intelligence did hold an consequence on academic success.
Finally, I went into deepness when researching motive as a factor. Dennis, Phinney and Chuateco ( 2005 ) suggested that although intrinsic motive is a dependable forecaster of academic success, extrinsic motive is non a dependable forecaster. This was supported by Busato et Al. ( 1999 ) , who illustrated that motive increases success.
By and large, it appeared that environmental factors played the biggest function in impacting success chiefly due to the figure of classs within the subdivision. However, at a closer glimpse, it has become evident that motive intertwines with many of the discussed factors. For illustration, refering equal webs, Sage and Kindermann ( 1999 ) claimed that pupils with higher academic motive and accomplishment tended to be members of groups more motivated for faculty members. High academic motive and achievement appear hand-in-hand. Furthermore, Dornbusch, Ritter, Liederman, Roberts, & A ; Fraleigh ( 1987 ) suggested that rearing affects a kid ‘s motive, taking to academic success. It seems good established amongst psychologists that motive can take to academic success.
Not merely does motive entwine amongst the other factors but it is besides a factor itself and the support for it is converting. For this ground, I think that motive is the most dominant factor act uponing academic success.
It could besides be argued that SES influences academic success to a great extent, mostly due to the fact that it contains sub-topics within it, such as parenting and equal webs, all of which offer back uping grounds.
It has become clear that environmental factors influence academic success to a big extent, nevertheless it is non the most dominant factor ; motive is. The staying factors must non be discarded though, as they all provide research exemplifying them as factors impacting academic success. It is besides of import to observe that the factors can be combined and are non on separate continuums. Person can hold high intelligence but uneffective instructors and can still accomplish academically.
Possible farther research could research the possibility to generalise the grounds cross culturally or would the decision be different for different civilizations.